Farley Mowat, the noted Canadian leftist and Greenpeace activist, wrote in his book West Viking (written while we were still in the global cooling scare) that there were probably at least dwarf forests growing in Greenland # when the Vikings arrived in 985 AD and the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History reports “… Erik the Red discovered two areas of southwest Greenland which were suitable for farming, with grasslands and small stands of alder and birch.” # You will note that it is too cold today for any type of forests to grow in Greenland, and there is zero ability to farm. Mowat also reported the Arctic pack ice was much less in that Viking discovery era than today. Dr. Fred Singer writes that when the Vikings first settled Greenland, they grew vegetables, and it was warm enough to allow the population to grow to 3,000 people # and by 1100 AD the place was thriving enough that they had their own bishop and twelve churches.# Nature reported in a 2010 article that clamshell studies also confirm Norse records.# Meanwhile, the Archeological Survey of Canada has also noted around “A.D. 1000, a warmer climate resulted in the tree line advancing 100 kilometres north of its present position.” # Yet, in the 1100s, Greenland cooled dramatically, briefly stabilized, and then dropped even further in the 1200s to the early 1400s. As Dale Mackenzie Brown writes “An ice core drilled from the island's massive icecap between 1992 and 1993 shows a decided cooling
1. Interestingly, Nature Magazine noted in June, 2006, that the Arctic used to be pretty much like Miami, with an average temp. of 74 F, alligator ancestors and palm trees. This has been determined from core samples taken 1,000 feet below the floor of the Arctic Ocean, the first time this has been done (see footnote below for further information on a warm Greenland). Another study, reported in The Journal, Summit Ministries, Dec. 2007, has shown from plant and insect remains that 400,000 years ago illustrate Greenland was as much as 27 F warmer than today . and that studies show over more than half a million years of history, temperature changes preceded CO2 levels. Even today, land temperatures in South America, Africa and Australia have gone down, not up, in the past few years, along with sea surface temperatures.
2. http://www.mnh.si.edu/vikings/voyage/htmlonly/greenland.html. Greenland was even warmer prior – World Magazine reports in its July 28, 2007, p. 32 issue (as summarized from Science Magazine) that when ice core samples were taken recently and analyzed, DNA from trees like pine and spruce, along with that of beetles, butterflies and spiders was found, and the international team thinks southern Greenland was covered with forests between 450,000 and 800,000 years ago.
3. See Unstoppable Global Warming – Every 1500 Years, by Fred Singer. The Smithsonian site at http://www.mnh.si.edu/vikings/voyage/htmlonly/greenland.htmlsays the Viking population reached a zenith of 5,000 people.
4. Chris Mayer, Putting the Green Back in Greenland, http://agorafinancial.com/Interestingly, global cooling not only exterminated the Vikings in Greenland, but global cooling also coincided with collapse of the Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire, as noted by Doug Casey in an interview with Louis James, Dec 28, 2009; See also http:/academic.emporia.edu/aberjame/ice/lec19/Holocene.htm#wine
5. http://www.nature.com/news/2010/100308/full/news.2010.110.html. See also (Bergthorsson, 1969; Dansgaard et al., 1975; Pringle, 1997).
6. Archeological Survey of Canada, Canada’s Visual History, The Little Ice and the Historic Inuit, Meanwhile, http://www.civilization.ca/cmc/archeo/artic/earc10.htm?cx=004942658266829129437:n0cnzsr3ydu&cof=FORID:11&ie=UTF-8&num=10&q=cmc+archeo+artic+earc10+htm
http://academic.emporia.edu/aberjame/ice/lec19/holocene.htm%20/%20wine notes that during the time period 880 to 1140 AD, “Radiocarbon dates on trees that grew in Canada (were) far north of the modern timberline” that “low radiocarbon levels in tree rings indicate high solar output and presumably warmer temperatures” and there was “Minimal sea-ice cover around Iceland.”
7. The Fate of Greenland’s Vikings, Dale Mackenzie Brown, Online Features, Feb. 28, 2000, http://www.archaeology.org/online/features/greenland/
8. These are cropped photos I took myself near the Vatnajokull glacier system at Skaftafell Nat’l Park, Iceland, in 2005, where you can see park documentation clearly states that during the Viking period “forests used to grow where the glacier is now,” and “valleys now filled with glaciers were rich in vegetation…” Go visit Skaftafell Nat’l Park, Iceland, yourself and read the full story there (before the global warming cabal, who apparently have an aversion to truth and honesty, go there and force the park to remove its signs).
11. Source for this information is from Dr. Tim Ball, http://drtimball.com/2012/sensationalist-and-distorted-climate-stories-increase-as-climate-science-failures-exposed/
today at lower altitudes, but demonstrably there are at bare minimum low altitude glaciers in roughly the same geographic area that had seen more melting and more pronounced glacial recession one thousand years ago than we see today. Al Gore may want to visit Skaftafell National Park in Iceland on one of his many jet-setting, carbon burning trips to check the facts himself. More evidence: There are records of grape growing occurring in places in northern Europe back during this optimum where they can't grow today. Gregory McNamee, in the Weather Guide Calendar (Accord Publishing, 2002) noted that wine connoisseurs might have gone to England for fine vintages (can’t grow fine vintage grapes there today!), that heat loving trees like beeches carpeted Europe far into Scandinavia, and Viking ships crossed iceberg free oceans to ice free harbors in England…”.
Art Horn writes that “In the winter of 1249 it was so warm in England that people did not need winter clothes. They walked about in summer dress. It was so warm people thought the seasons had changed. There was no frost in England the entire winter. Can you imagine what NOAA would say if that happened next year? “ On the other side of the world, research by Panin and Nefedov in 2010, where they analyzed rivers and lakes in the Upper Volga and Upper Zapadnaya Dvina areas in Russia, also found evidence of a Medieval climactic optimum in that part of the world# Even worse for the warmers, recent research has found evidence for the Medieval Climactic Optimum in the central Peruvian Andes – see http://www.nipccreport.org/articles/2011/sep/21sep2011a3.html, southern South America, see http://www.nipccreport.org/articles/2011/dec/14dec2011a4.html, China, see,http://www.nipccreport.org/articles/2012/jan/18jan2012a4.html, where the author XJ Zhou notes "temperatures in the Medieval Warm Period are comparable to those in the current warm period over China," and Antarctica, Li, Y., Cole-Dai, J. and Zhou, L. 2009. Glaciochemical evidence in an East Antarctica ice core of a recent (AD 1450-1850) neoglacial episode. Journal of Geophysical Research 114: 10.1029/2008JD011091 (summarized at http://www.nipccreport.org/articles/2011/sep/20sep2011a5.html). Amazingly, there is even clear evidence of the LIA and MWP in Antarctica- see http://motls.blogspot.com/2012/03/paper-antarctica-did-experience-both.html more as well as Western Canada, as illustrated by the picture below of a white spruce found on Canada’s Arctic Ocean.
Picea glauca (white spruce) stump on the Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula in tundra,
some 100km north of the current treeline. Photo by Professor Ritchie (University of Toronto). Radiocarbon date was 4940 ±140 years Before Present (BP), and was featured in Hubert Lamb’s classic work Climate, Present, Past and Future.
Another study, by earth sciences professor Zunli Lu (formerly of Oxford, now at Syracuse Univ.), studied samples of crystal called ikaite, which forms in cold water, and will melt at room temperature. Samples were taken by Lu and colleagues, examined for variation caused by temperature fluctuations during formation, and dated. The result? Lu writes: “This ikaite record qualitatively supports that both the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age extended to the Antarctic Peninsula.” What does this mean? It means that the MWP was not simply a localized event in northern Europe, or even the northern hemisphere. And if it was as warm 1,000 years ago as now all over the world, Al Gore is simply wrong. Study summary by the UK Register at http://www.theregister.co.uk/2012/03/23/warm_period_little_ice_age_global/
In a study by Kobashi, et al, entitled Summit Surface Snow Temperatures of Greenland, found at http://www.nipccreport.org/articles/2012/mar/20mar2012a1.html, there is further corroboration of Dr. Tim Ball’s contention. In sum, this reconstructed "Greenland surface snow temperature variability over the past 4000 years at the GISP2 site (near the Summit of the Greenland ice sheet) with a new method that utilizes argon and nitrogen isotopic ratios from occluded air bubbles. In so doing, the eight researchers report that the average Greenland snow temperature over the past 4000 years was -30.7°C, while the current decadal (2001-2010) surface temperature at the Greenland Summit is -29.9°C, which they say is as warm as it was there in the 1930s-1940s. And they add that "there was another similarly warm period (-29.7°C) in the 1140s (Medieval Warm Period), indicating that the present decade is not outside the envelope of variability of the last 1000 years." And, even more telling, prior to the last millennium they report "there were 72 decades warmer than the present one, in which mean temperatures were 1.0 to 1.5°C warmer." In fact, they found that "during two intervals (~1300 BP and ~3360 BP) centennial average temperatures were nearly 1.0°C warmer (-28.9°C) than the present decade."
The article concludes that “Clearly, there is nothing unusual, unnatural or unprecedented about Greenland's recent relative warmth, as it is clear that much warmer temperatures have been experienced there over many prior prolonged periods without any help from anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. There is no valid reason to believe that mankind's burning of coal, gas and oil has had, or is having, any measureable impact on the climate of that part of the world, or any other part of the planet.”
One further, fascinating study which corroborates the MWP was a study by Belt et al. in 2007, described at http://www.nipccreport.org/articles/2012/jan/11jan2012a3.html where scientists “used a biomarker (IP25), which authors Vare et al. (2009) describe as a mono-unsaturated highly-branched isoprenoid that is synthesized by sea ice diatoms that have been shown to be stable in sediments below Arctic sea ice.” The NIPCC reports concludes “ Based on IP25 data obtained from a marine sediment core retrieved from Barrow Strait (74°16.05'N, 91°06.38'W), which they compared with "complementary proxy data obtained form analysis of other organic biomarkers, stable isotope composition of bulk organic matter, benthic foraminifera, particle size distributions and ratios of inorganic elements," the five UK scientists of Vare et al. developed a spring sea ice record for that part of the central Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Results indicated evidence for a decrease in spring sea ice between approximately 1200 and 800 years before present (BP), which was followed by an increase in sea ice over the last 400 years of their record (between 800 and 400 years BP (emphasis mine). "Interestingly," as they describe it, "these latter two intervals coincide with, respectively, the so-called Mediaeval Warm Period and Little Ice Age, which commonly feature in lower latitude palaeo-climatic studies."
Subsequent to the Medieval Climactic Optimum, the Greenland historical records show there was a severe drop in temps starting around 1100 AD, which briefly saw a plateau, then dropped even further through the 1400s, only finally to sharply rise again very roughly around 1500 (by this time the Vikings had been frozen out of Greenland, and there were none left residing there),followed by a precipitous fall again starting later in the 1500s to the temperature nadirs of the Little Ice Age very roughly around the time of the American Revolution. Importantly, each of these optimums – the ones very roughly centered around 1000 AD and 1500 AD were far above today’s supposedly record high temperatures Al Gore frantically is warning us about. Even further west, into North America, in the first Mediaeval Warm Period, the Rocky Mountains had a snow line 1,000 feet higher than today. (Meanwhile, in the global freeze out between the two optimums, Chinese records show centuries old citrus orchards froze, the Thames froze up to 5’ in depth # and James Aber writes around 1215 in the Alps, an oberriederin (irrigation canal) was ”overrun by (the) advance of the Aletsch glacier; (with) the “canal head still covered by the modern Aletsch glacier” to this very day, and the passage from Iceland to Greenland became impassable around the mid 1300s due to the expansion of sea ice, with Greenland soon abandoned. # Research by the Chinese show similar warm periods on the other side of the world, including one report noting in the northeast of China “During the last 500 years, apparent climate fluctuations were experienced, including two cold phases from the 1470s to the 1710s and the 1790s to the 1860s, two warm phases from the 1720s to the 1780s, and after the 1870s. The temperature variations prior to the 1500s show two anomalous warm peaks, around 300 and between approximately 1100 and 1200, that exceed the warm level of the last decades of the 20th century.”
Physicist Russell Rickert has also reviewed Viking agricultural settlements in Greenland that had to be abandoned after 1300 AD # (the last supply ship to get through the ice was reportedly 1406, with three other ships in 1381, 1382 and 1385#) and notes, as well, that there was a drop severe drop in temps sometime after 1100 AD. Jared Diamond has noted in Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, that while we don’t know when the last Viking Greenlander died, in the earleir 1400s the North Atlantic became colder and stormier,
12. Civil Defense Perspectives, July 2001, vol 17, #5, p. 1
13. http://academic.emporia/edu/aberjame/ice/lec19/holocene.htm#wine). Aber also notes in this article that skeletal remains from Hvalsey church in Greenland show that values from tooth enamel indicate sharply colder temperatures during this era of cooling.
15. Debbie Saunders also notes the Vikings grew crops in Greenland during the Climactic Optimum (too cold today to do that!) – see Colorado Springs Gazette, Oct. 17, 2006, p. M6
16. See Jared M Diamond, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed.
and any mention in Viking records of ship traffic to Greenland ceased at that time. Diamond also noted a “radiocarbon date of 1435 for a woman’s dress excavated from Herjolfsnes churchyard,” which suggests people may have survived a few years after the last supply ship to reach Greenland. # Diamond also notes in his book that the Greelander Norse went through several runs of cold years in the 1300s, and then the temperatures plunged in the 1400s, which cold lasted until the 1800s.
Lord Christopher Monckton of England has noted, “Scores of scientific papers show that the Medieval warm period was real, global and up to [5 degrees Fahrenheit] warmer than now…Then, there were no glaciers in the tropical Andes; today they're there (in fact, the Perito Moreno glacier in Argentina has been expanding quite handily the past few decades).# There were Viking farms in Greenland; now they're under permafrost. There was little ice at the North Pole – a Chinese naval squadron sailed right around the Arctic in 1421 and found none” # (from this, clearly one can infer there were warm as well as cool periods within the centuries long larger trend lines. The Chinese fleet may have sailed during one of these warmer respites. As we see even today, there are counter-cyclical short term trends – and not only meteorologically, but even within areas like stock indices). And not only did the Chinese find little ice in 1421, 500 years later, John Coleman, founder of the Weather Channel, noted around 1900 the Northwest Passage was clear of ice, during another period of warmth.# Meanwhile, France’s Burgundy region, renowned for their wines for centuries, has kept records of grape harvest data going back to the end of the Medieval Optimum, from which researches constructed a temperature graph which shows – you guessed it – slight cooling overall since that era. In fact, while carbon dioxide was as much as 100 ppm less, this research shows the 1300s, 1400 and 1600 were warmer than today.
The truth is, there has been global warming recently – but it started around the time of the Revolutionary war, and is today still BELOW the average of the past 3,000 years. And this is not just for Europe, Greenland and North America, yet another red herring that has recently been thrown out by the desperate global warmers. The universality of the Viking and Mediaeval climactic optimums is written about by Kegwin, who wrote in Science, 1996:274:1504-1508, the mean surface temp of the Sargasso Sea (which lies roughly between the West Indies and the Azores), which was obtained by readings of isotope ratios in marine organism remains in sediment, shows we are, today, below the three thousand year average, and far below the Medieval Climactic Optimum. Civil Defense Perspectives, Mar. 2007, Vol. 23, #3, p. 1, notes that evidence for this climactic optimum has been found in all but 2 out of 103 locations where it was examined for, including Asia, Africa, South America and the western U.S.
22. See Dr. Willie Soon, et al, Energy Environ 2003; 14(2,3):233-296
graph of temperature in the Sargasso Sea tells you all you need to know (note: that big horizontal line running across the page is the 3,000 year average!), Interestingly, the warmer times coincided not only with the best harvests, but also the least amount of major storm activity. #